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Memory, one of the hallmarks of human cognition, can be modified when humans voluntarily modulate neural population activity using neurofeedback. However, it is currently unknown whether neurofeedback can influence the integration of memories, and whether memory is facilitated or impaired after such neural perturbation.

In this study, participants memorized objects while we provided them with abstract neurofeedback based on their brain activity patterns in the ventral visual stream. This neurofeedback created an implicit face or house context in the brain while memorizing the objects. The results revealed that participants created associations between each memorized object and its implicit context solely due to the neurofeedback manipulation. Our findings shed light onto how memory formation can be influenced by synthetic memory tags with neurofeedback and advance our understanding of mnemonic processing.


Collin SHP, van den Broek PLC, van Mourik T, Desain P, & Doeller CF (2022). Inducing a mental context for associative memory formation with real-time fMRI neurofeedback. Scientific Reports.

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